". . . But the past does not exist independently from the present. Indeed, the past is only past because there is a present, just as I can point to something over there only because I am here. But nothing is inherently over there or here. In that sense, the past has no content. The past -- or more accurately, pastness -- is a position. Thus, in no way can we identify the past as past." p. 15

". . . But we may want to keep in mind that deeds and words are not as distinguishable as often we presume. History does not belong only to its narrators, professional or amateur. While some of us debate what history is or was, others take it into their own hands." p. 153

Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History (1995) by Michel-Rolph Trouillot

Monday, January 30, 2012

*How The Irish Became White*

Noel Ignatiev's labor history, How the Irish Became White (1995) Rutledge, makes transparent why election campaigns are still rousing the electorate with divisive racist and immigration fireworks, instead of focusing on the lack of decent paying jobs in this country and what we can do to turn that around.

Notes, from the Afterword:

p 180 - 181

[ If this book has a target, it is the New Labor History, associated in America with the name of Herbert Gutman. The New Labor History shifted attention away from unions and other institutions toward the daily life of working people. It broke new ground in examining the roll of the family, the community, and the culture in forming the working class. In treating working people as the subjects of their own activity, it broke with the labor historians who preceded it. However, in its attitude toward the race problem it continued the tradition established earlier within Old Left circles, of substituting an abstract notion of the working class for the lived experience of working people. Ft 8 Unable to deny entirely the record of white labor in accepting and promoting racial distinctions, the new labor historians treated it as peripheral to the main line of working class formation and struggle. Rarely did they ask what the labor move-

p 181

ment looked like from the perspective of the slave worker kept in bondage by the alliance of slaveholders, financiers, and white laborers known as the Democratic Party. Or the free black worker denied land and employment, or the Chinese worker barred from the country, by the power of organized labor. In failing to do so they were reneging on their promise to write history “from the bottom up.”

One explanation that can be offered for the Gutman school’s blind spot on race is that it was motivated by the search for a tradition that could serve as the sarting point for the sort of labor movement they hoped would emerge – the famous “usable past.” The selective lens used in the search involved denial, and denial led to apologetics. … ]

Ft 8 Old Left labor historians, notwithstanding valuable work they did on Afro American history, never allowed the race question to interfere with their celebration of what they called the labor movement. …. the problem I’m addressing is … failure to locate slavery and freedom in their proper place in the history of the working class in America. …. ]

p 184

In other words when it comes to the history of labor struggle in the U.S. all of this is a sidebar to the real, big, story

Afterword: outlines how

[ “David Walker’s Appeal, Nat Turner’s rebellion, the development of the Afro-American church and the black press, the underground railroad and the vigilance committees, abolitionism, John Brown, the Civil War, the withdrawal of labor from the plantation, the black soldiers, Negroes as voters and citizens, forty acres and a mule, the overthrow of Reconstruction – all these were prelude, part of the debate over slavery and the Negro; the “real” struggle between capital and labor is about to begin.” ]

p 185

See HtIBW chapters re frequent riots in the urban north; predominately Irish immigrants freely beat and murdered free blacks and burned their homes, churches and lecture halls - as part of the pleasure wage of whiteness) which allowed“many workers [to] define themselves as white,” and for which, if jailed, seldom indicted, if sent to trial, seldom found guilty, if hardly ever found guilty, were never sentenced.

[ …. The author [Alexander Sexton] sees little difficulty in understanding how the theory of white superiority arose out of the need to vindicate a class of people that grew rich from the slave trade, slavery, and the expropriation of land from nonwhite populations; the more formidable problem is to explain why nonslaveholding whites acquiesced either in planter dominance or its justifations. The Rise and Fall, then is a study of the role of white supremacy in legitimating the changing class coalitions that ruled the U.S. in the nineteenth century.

Contrary to the fictions of the white labor apologists, “The hard side of racism generally appeared in nineteenth-century America as a corollary to egalitarianism (186). Whiggery was shaped, above all, by class position; within the Whig social hierarchy, “racial difference could be viewed … [as] simply one among many” (70). Northern Whig employers felt the greatest threat from the insurgent immigrant population, while their attitude toward nonwhites was often one of tolerant condescension. For the Jacksonians, needing to cement a coalition based on white egalitarianism, racial distinctions were central. “Their natural proclivity was to the hard side of racism” (120). Accordingly, “class differentials dissolved into a sentimental oneness of the white herrenvolk”(123).

David Roediger also explores the problem of white ideology, with specific attention to the working class. He asks “why the white working class settles for being white” (6) and finds the answer in Du Bois’s notion of the “public and psychological wage.” The “pleasures of whiteness could function as a wage” (6). To trace the evolution and effects of that wage is the task of The Wages of Whiteness. Although Roediger locates himself within the “broad tradition” of the New Labor History, and uses Marxist tools, he acknowledges tht “the new labor history has hesitated to

p 186

explore ‘whiteness’ and white supremacy as creations in part, of the white working class itself” (9) and that “the main body of writing by white Marxists in the United States has both ‘naturalized’ whiteness and oversimplified race, reproduc[ing] the weaknesses of both American liberalism and neo conserativism” (6).
“Working class formation and the systematic development of a sense of whiteness went hand in hand for the U.S. white working class,” writes Roediger (8). If the color line paid a “public and psychological wage, “The cost was a debased republicanism,” condemnation to “lifelong wage labor” (55). He concludes with an appropriate symbol: by the end of Reconstruction, “white workers were still tragically set on keeping even John Henry out of the House of Labor” (181). ]

One more day and it's Black History Month, you all.

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

A Favorite Meme Rides Again!Open the nearest book at page 45 and read the first sentence, which will predict your sex life for the next year.

Open the nearest book at page 45 and read the first sentence, which will predict your sex life for the next year.

" This identification of the Frontiersman as a dangerous character persisted beyond the colonial period, and affected Metropolitan response to all subsequent Frontiers."

Fatal Environment -- Richard Slotkin

Slotkin has become one of my essential thinkers, like Robert Farris Thompson and Fernand Braudel.  I keep their books within reach at all times

Sunday, January 22, 2012

Visions of the POTUS

In the after-concert socializing last night a friend whose classes have resumed shared this bit with me re his freshman students.

Somehow or other he used Romney as an example of something in one of his classes. He recalled that one cannot take for granted anything that one of his age knows as a matter of course. So he asked the class, "You know who Romney is?"

A lot of blank stares, then one student asks, "Isn't he one of those white dudes who wants to president or something?"

His freshman are so young and thus non-historical that a lot of them take the office of the POTUS being held by a black person as a matter of course.

Friday, January 20, 2012

*New York Diaries: 1609 - 2009* ed. by Teresa Carpenter & Dwight Garner

New York Diaries: 1609 - 2009 ed. by Teresa Carpenter and Dwight Garner (2012); Modern Library.

On May 20, 1948, Jack Kerouac is waiting to hear from a publisher about his first novel, The Town and the City, during which he thinks about the cultural difference between New York and other parts of the country as he's known it:

No word from Scribner’s. Their silence and businesslike judicious patience is driving me crazy with tension, worry, expectation, disappointment — everything. And the novel is yet unfinished, really, and the time has come to start typing it and straightening it out. What a job in this weary life of mine, this lazy life. But I’ll get down to it. The news that Jesse James is still alive is very thrilling news to me, and my mother too, but we’ve noticed that it doesn’t seem to impress the New York world at all — which does bear out, in its own way, what I say about New York, that it is a heaven for European culture and not American culture. I don’t get personally mad these things any more, because that is overdoing things in the name of culture and at the expense of general humanity, but still, I get personally mad at those who scoff at the significance of Jesse James, bandit or no, to the regular American with a sense of his nation’s past.”

Tuesday, January 17, 2012

*The Long Ships* - Winter Recreation

The Swedish author, Frans G. Bengtsson's The Long Ships, is an old-fashioned historical novel, in the sense of Scott and Dumas having a child, while the Polish Nobel for Literature Prize winner, Henryk Sienkiewicz's brilliant historical novels stand in as Godparents.  Allow me the lazy cutpasta from wiki:
[ "With Fire and Sword (Ogniem i mieczem, 1884), which took place during the 17th century Cossack revolt known as the Khmelnytsky Uprising; made into a movie with the same title. A video game based on the novel, Mount&Blade: With Fire & Sword, has been released by Turkish studio TaleWorlds.;[5]

The Deluge, (Potop, 1886), describing the Swedish invasion of Poland known as The Deluge; made into a movie with the same title;

Fire in the Steppe also called Pan Michael (Pan Wołodyjowski, 1888), which took place during wars with the Ottoman Empire in the late 17th century; made into a film titled Colonel Wolodyjowski.

The Teutonic Knights, also translated as The Knights of the Cross, (Krzyżacy, 1900, relating to the Battle of Grunwald); made into a movie with the same title in 1960 by Aleksander Ford." ]

These are among my favorite historical fictions, whether as novels or films -- the films are splendid recreations of time, place and historical events. However, Sienkiewicz's novelist's narrative voice at least, is somewhat humorless, though not entirely so. There is some situational comic moments -- and if one can imagine oneself into the milieu it is funny.
It's interesting to contrast these four writers' sense of comic as they are all different. Scott finds most of his humor in character -- he deliberately writes comic characters. Dumas's sense of the comic is that of bouyant reparte among characters in conflict, whether they are friends or enemies, that often leads to a ridiculous and dangerous contretemps that resolves via an equally witty series of antic words and actions among the actors within the scene. Yes it's difficult not to visualize these scenes as upon a theater's stage, as Dumas's characters were as successful there as on the pages within book.

What is different about Bengtsson's humor is that the narrative voice contains an ironic lighteness, a twentieth century quality (though Bengtsson was born in 1894, the novel's first section was published in 1941 and the second in 1945). The narrative voice puts a slight distance between the reader and Bengtsson's characters. This is mostly pointed at 10th century Christianity and its aggressively proselytizing priests, as judged so wanting in real gods and real manhood, by the tenths century Scandinavians, Muslims, Jews and Saxons. As we read along it seems that Bengstsson's novel may likely haven been a resource-inspiration for several of the current nordic adventure series (the hero is named Orm -- and it seems that the protagonists of all these current series is named Orm) from Robert Low to M.D. Lachlan.

Though I will say that Bengtsson feels to me a more consistently graceful writer than Bernard Cornwell, Cornwell's protagonist of his Saxon Stories, Uthred, is as finely created a protagonist as Bengstsson's Orm -- whether or not he was influenced by The Long Ships.

Tales filled with the men of the old sagas and their companions, their adventures a-viking and their strife with each other -- these are what I love to read or watch, snug by my fire in my bed, in the dark, frigid days and nights of winter. The Long Ships fills this desire to perfection.

Monday, January 16, 2012

Why We Have Martin Luther King Day

Smoky Robinson, Def Poetry Jam:

From an amigo in Maryland:

[ "Martin Luther King Jr. expressed a view that black Americans, as well as other disadvantaged Americans, should be compensated for historical wrongs. In an interview conducted for Playboy in 1965, he said that granting black Americans only equality could not realistically close the economic gap between them and whites. King said that he did not seek a full restitution of wages lost to slavery, which he believed impossible, but proposed a government compensatory program of $50 billion over ten years to all disadvantaged groups. He posited that "the money spent would be more than amply justified by the benefits that would accrue to the nation through a spectacular decline in school dropouts, family breakups, crime rates, illegitimacy, swollen relief rolls, rioting and other social evils".[77]:365–7 He presented this idea as an application of the common law regarding settlement of unpaid labor, but clarified that he felt that the money should not be spent exclusively on blacks. He stated, "It should benefit the disadvantaged of all races" " ]

Wonderful Martin Luther King birthday party yesterday, Uptown.  Five different gumbo, from five different contributors, each one distinct from the others, each equally delicious.

Among other highlights of this wonderful gathering, we met the daughter of one of the song writers for Harry Belafonte's album, Calypso.  Note, this is the first album to ever have sold a million copies.  He was also the first sex symbol to emerge from the folk music trend.  El V had memorized all the music and the words on Calypso by the time he was five.  History.  It lives.  We speak with it every day.

Sunday, January 15, 2012

When Corporations Are People ... Meet Serial Killer, Mitt the Ripper!

Watch this video from the Definitely Not Coordinating With Stephen Colbert Super PAC, released Jan. 14, 2012.

A friend speculated last week, "If personhood begins at conception, does a corporation become a person when the first idea is scrawled on the cocktail napkin."

So, is Colbert executing intellectual property theft? It's a long, windy, twisty, sticky road we travel when embarking on this personhood begins even before conception!

Wednesday, January 11, 2012

Harry Belafonte, *My Song*, and Langston Hughes, *The Big Sea*

Harry Belafonte published his memoirs, My Song, in September. Now that el V has gotten to read it too, there's been someone with whom I talk about it. With many friends visiting this means we both talk about it. It turns out that they, like many of the readers and reviewers of the book are surprised to learn -- or, had forgotten -- that Belafonte was such an activist, who, in a very large way, helped bankroll the Civil Rights Movement of the 60's and 70's. But My Song isn't only about himself. As Mr. Belafonte described during his time with Smiley and West on the program this last weekend, he was prompted to do this book because Marlon Brando died without doing one, and hardly anybody knew how much he did for the Movement and other Civil Liberties causes -- thus documentary, Sing Your Song, that Belafonte made for HBO, that aired back in October.

Now that el V's been able to read My Song too, I've had someone to talk with about it, which brought to mind Langston Hughes's autobiography-memoir, The Big Sea. The two artists are a generation and a half apart. Langston Hughes was born in 1902, Belafonte in 1927. They both grew up poor, they both worked extensively in theater, they both were all their lives activists for equality and civil rights. There's a photo in Belafonte's book with him and Langston Hughes together. They were both very good looking. Belafonte's noted for his Caribbean roots. Hughes spent significant periods in Mexico when he was young, as his birth father emigrated there.
I discovered Langston Hughes around the same time I discovered Harry Belafonte, while a girl on the farm: Hughes, in a poetry anthology, Belafonte on a Caribbean Christmas album, singing "The Borning Day."

Mr. Belafonte's book didn't get that much attention upon publication. Some reviewers were overtly were hostile and dismissive of both him and the book, because of his "liberal" stance, his activism, for his "paling around with dictators like Castro and Chavez." They said he was sexist because he's had three spouses in the tradition of very successful show biz people have memorably done, at least in his generations (successful female entertainers of the era married several times also). The hostility of these reader-reviewers reminded me that reader-editors of Hughes's The Big Sea (1943) -- his publishers hated his Harlem Renaissance section, declaring it far too long, overblown, filled with all these names and events that nobody cared about. Finally Carl Van Vechten intervened and insisted the section remain, just as Hughes had written it. Not long after this section was recognized for the brilliant piece of writing it is, everyone's favorite section. It has become an invaluable primary source for cultural, political and art historians. This may well be the fate of My Song.

Sunday, January 8, 2012

Harry Belafonte

What brought Harry Belafonte to my consciousness was a song, of course.  A Christmas song, on a Christmas album of Caribbean Christmas songs that I played over and over and over as a child, entranced not only by the lyrics, but by the individual words themselves.  This song was "The Borning Day."  Even now, the verse that brought tears to my eyes every time I heard it, make my eyes fill. Harry Belafonte understood what it is to be poor. He's never forgotten.

Mary and the baby hungry

Yes, we know what hungry be
So we bring them peas and rice
And a little ginger tea
Only pigeon peas and rice
A little ginger tea

Mary thank us with her eyes
She poor the same as we
She poor the same as we

Mary and the baby lonely
Lonely is not good to be
So we sit awhile and chat awhile
To keep them company

Stay awhile makes the baby smile
Pass the time of day
When we see how pleased they be
It make us glad we stay
So glad that we could stay

Mary and the baby weary
Oh, we know what weary be
So we make a bed and pillow for their head
With down from the muhow tree
Only down from the muhow tree

To rest them soft and good
We feel bad this was all we had
We do the best we could
We do the best we could

Mary and the baby rest easy
We go away and let them be
On hush tip toe and voice kept low
We look up and see
Stars of hope shine in the sky
To mark the baby's birth

Seemed to say it's borning day
Of better times on earth
Of better times on earth

The marks of poverty are constant hunger, isolation without privacy, exhaustion -- and yet, still hope. O gods ....
There was no way that girl could know back then that one day she would meet Harry Belafonte, and thereafter, occasionally spend time in his company. Mr. Belafante singing "Borning Day" was the first gateway to the Caribbean for her, sparking her imagination, but she never dreamed that in the future she'd be there often, see the poverty, the joy, the fun, the beauty of the Caribbean for herself.

Mr. Belafonte's 87 now.  He's written a book that speaks to what he's seen and experienced over his lifetime of artistic achievement and political activism, particularly on behalf of the poor and powerless.  He was motivated to finally do this book because his dear, dear friend, Marlon Brando, died without doing so, and Belafonte is one of the remaining who know all the wonderful things Brando did too, for the poor and the powerless.  What the people did with whom he's worked closely during their lifetimes, from Martin Luther King to Sidney Poitier, to Marlon Brando and others of that generation of entertainment celebrities, is the subject of his book, along with his own political education.
My Song: A Memoir (09/2011), written with Michael Shnayerson, is more than worth reading, particularly for his account of growing up poor in Jamaica and Harlem.  It's full humor too.  The book is the second part that fills in all he couldn't include in his documentary, on Brando and othersSing Your Song (HBO, 10/2011)
Last fall. when Occupy Wall Street here had a weekend of panels and so on with the activists of the Civil Rights era of the 20th C, Mr. Belafonte was present and an active contributor. Today, Smiley and West gave Mr. Belafonte their whole radio program to talk of his response and ideas about what's going on now.  He was as inspiring on the radio as he is in person.

Friday, January 6, 2012

Where My King Cake At?

Epiphany, the Twelfth Day of Christmas!

Yum -- and Puerto Rico rox today! Woo.

And now it's official -- Mardi Gras comin' Babeeeeeeeeeeeeeee

Tuesday, January 3, 2012

What Time Is It?

Winter Time.

In the past serious winter did arrive in Manhattan generally on New Year's or the next day.  In Manhattan of 2012 it arrived last night.  Brrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr.

It's also the month when so many friends from elsewhere come to Manhattan for business, for a break, for fun, for whatever.  It's also the month we're always pinched due to unemployment, which doesn't return until the end of the month.  It's become a regular part of the yearly cycle.

The first out of town friend arrived December 24th.  He comes then and goes up state to teach a klezmer music camp.  This year it got cut short because the primary benefactor died.  The funeral and memorial were over New Year's.  We're seeing him tonight. Yesterday we received 4 phone calls and 3 e-mails from people coming in, scheduling the meet-ups.

So we may be broke but we are wealthy in friends.

With friends you are always, in the end, bottom line, A-OK!

In the meantime I have duvets, comforters and blankets and throws galore.  And a space heater.  Because when the temps fall below freezing here, the buildling's furnace doesn't provide any more heat than its long-ago programmed times to provide heat.  So it's daymed cold in here most of the time then, unless I'm cooking.  Which I did for hours yesterday.  I finally made that long-postoned moussaka.  It took hours!  Which is why there is nothing more cozy than making food in the good old wintertime.

Sunday, January 1, 2012

2011: Foxessa Read 11 Books

(+ many, many more, but these reflect the most significant theme of all my reading, the endless expressions of violence that is the history of us .... )

Gordon, Lyndall.  (2010) Lives Like Loaded Guns: Emily Dickinson and Her Family’s Feuds. Viking. 

Emily Dickinson’s poem “My Life Had Stood – A Loaded Gun” can be found here. A short series of essays on the poem by various American poets can be found here.

This is an American tale of emotional violence and a desperate quest for upward social mobility, during which homes became battlefields of the heart, littered with casualties. The book’s apt title comes from Emily Dickinson’s poem, # 764:

My Life had stood - a Loaded Gun -
In Corners - till a Day

and concludes:

For I have but the power to kill,
Without - the power to die –

Gordon conveys the excitement with which women readers and writers of the day greeted the emergence of Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, Elizabeth Gaskell, George Eliot and Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Dickinson’s letters describe how much she anticipated each new work by these women, as when she sought out Elizabeth Gaskell’s biography of Charlotte Bronte immediately upon its publication. She requested that Emily Bronte’s poem, “No Coward Soul Be Mine” be read at her funeral, but she squarely agreed with Charlotte Bronte’s famous rejection of Jane Austen: “The passions are perfectly unknown to her: she rejects even a speaking acquaintance with that stormy sisterhood . . .”

The book’s presentation of the cultural and social matrices that formed the characters of Dickinson and her community are impressive, as in her account of the effect of the second Great Awakening upon Dickinson: she would not be saved, though the pressure put on her to do so made her so ill she had to leave school. Dickinson was as reclusive as the Brontes and Browning, and Gordon carefully describes the homes, gardens, and landscapes of Dickinson’s Amherst, with details from primary sources and her poems. But Gordon’s somewhat sensationalist central subject is the affair between Emily Dickinson’s puritanical, patriarchal brother, Austin, and the gorgeous home wrecker, Mabel Loomis Todd. 

Austin and Emily’s grandfather had founded Amherst College, and like his father before him, Austin served in the powerful position of college treasurer. He married Emily’s best friend, whom she called ”my soul mate”: the cultivated, vivacious Susan Huntington Gilbert, a highly regarded hostess to a long list of accomplished, famous and important friends who helped make Amherst one of the centers of New England’s intellectual and academic life. Though Dickinson never showed the largest portion of her work to anybody, Susan was permitted to see many of her poems, and some were written about her.

Enter the antagonist. In contrast to the socially prominent, financially secure Dickinsons, the enchanting Mabel Loomis Todd grew up in poverty,  Her husband, David Peck Todd, was a morally careless adventurer-astronomer. A charming, conniving seducer and an early advocate of what was then called “free love,” he did well from his wife’s long affair with Austin, who obtained for him Amherst college positions at levels beyond his professional qualifications. The part of the book that tells this story is founded upon a great deal of speculation, the sort that makes for splendid historical fiction. However, for a non-fiction study, there’s so much “it could have been,” “it might be,” and “perhaps,” that a researcher would need to take care in using this work as a source.

The economic and emotional destruction of the affair between Austin and Mabel was carried down through at least three generations, and split literary and Amherst communities. At one point in her struggle to get Austin to acknowledge her publicly as his true life partner, Mabel Loomis Todd requested in a letter that he kill Susan. Fortunately, Austin was too dumb -- or too smart – to understand what she wrote, and never responded to the letter’s request, at least not in writing, or any other way, as far as we know. Mabel succeeded in pushing Susan out of Austin’s life, at the price of being socially outcast by the community she’d expected to lead through Austin. She never married Austin, who died in 1895; Susan outlived him.

However, Mabel made her fame and fortune from the poetry of Austin’s deceased sister Emily, claiming both poetry and poet. Although Mabel never met Dickinson, or  read any of Dickinson’s poems until after the poet’s death in 1886, she conned the greater number of Emily’s poems out of Austin and Emily’s sister Lavinia after Lavinia discovered them. Mabel never returned them, and, in a brilliant career move, went on to edit the poems (their first publication was in 1890), while constructing a persona for Emily as the White Dove of Amherst, which has plagued Dickinson’s image ever since, though Dickinson was no demure pigeon. It was the great era of the traveling lecturer, and Mabel toured, reading Dickinson’s poems while garbed in white, as “her” Emily supposedly read them to her. The grab of both poet and unpublished poems alienated Mabel's former ally, Austin and Emily’s sister Lavinia. Austin’s son hated her, and legally fought Mabel’s possession of the family land Austin had gifted Mabel’s husband.

Speaking as a reader who argues with books as she reads them, I wonder how much to trust Gordon’s understanding of Dickinson’s inner life. Oddly, she believes that Emily Dickinson had no interest in the subjects of slavery, abolition or the Civil War. But was there a person alive in the entire country who didn’t think about the Civil War, all the time, while it was going on? * Emily Dickinson was a politically informed adult. Her father was a congressman, and she lived in an intellectually active, abolitionist atmosphere at a time when the Civil War was devouring and mangling the young men of every town and family in New England. Not only is Dickinson’s work marked by its variety of images of, and addresses to, Death, she employed frequently the imagery of the same Civil War army weaponry illustrated in newspapers and publications of the day. 

Writers write what they know, and Emily Dickinson knew what the people around her felt, and she knew what she saw. For Dickinson, who lived in the years before, during, and after the Civil War, violence in all its forms was as familiar as the garden path between her house and Susan’s. 


* Other than Nathaniel Hawthorne, that is, who carried on a many-year sulk fest that everybody else wouldn't let him ignore it because they thought and talked and wrote about it all the time!
Here follows a short list of some of the other most interesting books I read this year. All of them are about America, violence and money too.

Lemay, J.A. Leo. (1991). The American Dream of Captain John Smith. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville and London.

Lukács, Georg. (1938 – 1962 -- 1983). The Historical Novel. University of Nebraska Press.

Remini, Robert V. (1977) Andrew Jackson Vol. I: The Course of American Empire 1767 – 1821. Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. NY, and Johns Hopkins Paperbacks edition 1998.
                             (1981) Andrew Jackson Vol. 2: The Course of American Freedom 1822 – 1832. Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. NY, and Johns Hopkins Paperbacks edition 1998.      
                              (1984) Andrew Jackson Vol 3: The Course of American Democracy, 1833-1845. Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. NY, and Johns Hopkins Paperbacks edition 1998.
*Note: These volumes are no longer in print and available only through dealers.

Simmon, Scott. (2003). The Invention of the Western Film: A Cultural History of the Genre’s First Half-Century. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Slotkin, Richard. (1973) Regeneration Through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 1600 – 1860. Wesleyan University Press, Middletown.
                           (1985) The Fatal Environment: The Myth of the Frontier in the Age of Industrialization, 1800 – 1890. Atheneum, New York.
                           (1992) Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier In Twentieth Century America. Atheneum, New York